First Child Poverty Study in Zambia using a Multidimensional Approach (N-MODA)

UNICEF Zambia, the Ministry of National Development Planning, and the Central Statistical Office recently launched the first child poverty study in Zambia using a multidimensional approach. The study is based on UNICEF’s Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) approach, and its conclusive findings are based on the unique analysis of deprivations among individual children (not on household data). This analysis considers the nature of child deprivations at different life stages allowing for a precise measurement of deprivations of children in poverty.

For example, in the case of being deprived in the education dimension, each child can be deprived in the education dimension even when their siblings are not. This realistically precise estimate avoids under- or overestimation compared to studies using household data, as seen in other multidimensional poverty methodologies. The MODA approach thus also allows for demonstrating the differences between boys and girls in a precise manner, compared to other, less precise multidimensional poverty measurement methods.

This publication for Zambia points to issues that are important for policy design and for country-specific programming to better respond to the deprivations faced by children. Child poverty results for Zambia are a baseline for the 2017-2021 National Monitoring and Evaluation framework that will also be used for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) reporting.

In the near future Angola, Cambodia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Rwanda, Ethiopia and Libya will publish a child poverty study based on MODA.

Angola launches its Multidimensional Child Deprivation Study (MODA)

UNICEF and the National Institute of Statistics (INE) recently published the Child Poverty Report for Angola. In the report, the institutes adopt the Child-Rights approach advocated by UNICEF and reflected in the MODA methodology. This approach emphasises the importance of the nature of the UN Convention on the rights of the child, by giving equal weights to the dimensions in which children can be deprived.

This rights-based approach voids giving arbitrary weights to each of the dimensions, stating that children need adequate nutrition, education and health care as well as access to safe water, sanitation and protection from violence and abuse. Each of these dimensions is equally important and they cannot be weighted hierarchically, which is suggested by other multidimensional poverty estimates.

Given that the needs of children differ depending on their age, the analysis evaluates the variations in deprivations across four age groups, considering an age-group-specific set of indicators and child dimensions of well-being which contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of child deprivations compared to studies using household data. Overall, the MODA analysis provides relevant evidence for advocacy and programmatic purposes, and provides the Government of Angola with a baseline for the child-related SDG 1.2 indicators.

In the near future Cambodia, Zambia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Ethiopia and Libya will publish a child poverty study based on MODA.

Multidimensional Child Poverty in Rwanda: A Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA)

UNICEF and the National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) recently published their Multidimensional Child Poverty study for Rwanda. The study measures child poverty using individual deprivation data for children applying UNICEF’s Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) approach.

rwanda.pngThe publication provides an exploration of the single- and overlapping deprivations that children experience, and changes in the levels of multidimensional child poverty between 2010 and 2015. The results of the study illustrate the association of child deprivations with child mortality, and how well the methodology is suited to provide detailed analysis of stunting among younger children.

The study also compares the overlap between children (5 to 17 years) living in monetary poor households and the children multidimensionally poor and finds that 13 per cent of the children deprived in at least 3 dimensions do not live in monetary poor households. The report thus shows the richness of the rights-based approach that is underlying MODA.

In the near future Angola, Cambodia, Zambia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Ethiopia and Libya will publish a child poverty study based on the MODA methodology.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics launches first child poverty study in Kenya using MODA for analysis

Kenya joins the 60+ countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe that use UNICEF’s National Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (N-MODA) to analyze child poverty and deprivation in the country. The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) has chosen MODA for estimating multidimensional deprivation and poverty among children of all ages. The study was officially launched in March 2018.

full reportKNBS appreciated the fact that MODA, contrary to other approaches, uses individual data for children to assess multiple deprivations in a rights-based framework. The MODA application for Kenya is complemented with monetary poverty analysis and monitors progress in realization of SDG 1.2.2. (reducing poverty of men, women, and children of all ages in all its dimensions) between 2008-09 and 2014 using Kenya Demographic Health Survey data. The results are provided separately for boys and girls and the 47 county profiles.

MODA results in the study have been complemented with qualitative research findings from fieldwork in the counties of Turkana, Kakamega, and Kitui carried out during August 2016. SPRI team carried out numerous focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with service providers in the sectors of health, education, and nutrition, and beneficiaries – mothers and children – to gain an insight on barriers in service accessibility and bottlenecks in service provision.

In the near future Angola, Cambodia, Zambia, Lesotho, Rwanda, Swaziland, Ethiopia and Libya will publish a child poverty study based on MODA.

Download the report: Child Poverty in Kenya: A multidimensional approach

Partnering with UNICEF Benin for ARCH (Assurance pour le Renforcement du Capital Humain) performance indicators

As part of our ongoing mission to carry out a study for the identification of the micro, meso and macro level elements linking the Assurance pour le Renforcement du Capital Humain (ARCH) program (and it’s four constituting components: health insurance, professional training, microcredit, and pension) to its objectives, SPRI team members recently traveled to Benin to support the efforts of UNICEF Benin.

For this purpose, we are developing theories of change for the program, which must satisfy of specific conditions. Herein we identify performance indicators to assess the actual completion of all the conditions necessary to go from the program (and its four constituents) to the program’s objectives.
During this engagement, we presented our first draft of theories of change (both for the whole program and each of its constituents) and held brainstorming sessions with local practioners and key experts for each of the program’s constituents, in order to identify the parameters of success for the program. Establishing these conditions then also allowed us to also identify risks to the success of the program. Our first draft of the ToCs was discussed, improved and validated and we are now working on a first draft of the report to be delivered soon, which will then be supplemented with a comprehensive list of performance indicators.
Our deliverables will have two main objectives; they will help our clients to
(1) critically go through the decision process at the outset of the implementation of the program’s constituents; and
(2) seek financial support from donors and banks for the implementation and running of their program (our study being part of a series of studies aiming to show the commitment of the government in its endeavor).

The mission took place in the Infosec training centre of the government in Cotonou, which was chosen to host our meetings.

Last mission for 2017, Ethiopia. Ready to embrace 2018 research and policy challenges!


We concluded 2017 with a mission in Ethiopia at the end of December. Our team had discussions with partners on preliminary findings of a multidimensional child poverty analysis using UNICEF’s MODA (Multidimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis) approach and parameters selected jointly during capacity building workshops in March and June.

On December 21st we met with the government and UNICEF officials from the sectors of women and child affairs, education, health, WASH, labor and social affairs, child protection, and the National Planning Commission in Addis Ababa. On December 22nd we drove to Adama for consultations with the officials of the Central Statistics Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia who were participating in a training for the National Census.

We had very interesting and fruitful discussions with partners on the preliminary findings and their comparison to existing evidence on poverty in Ethiopia, necessary changes to data collection tools to improve measurement and track progress of children’s well-being, and other research we can conduct on specific topics using the 2016 Demographic and Health Survey data.

This mission to Ethiopia marks the final phase of consultations with national partners on multidimensional child poverty analysis which will be finalized in the next few months.The SPRI Team is looking forward to pursuing new research and policy analysis challenges in 2018 and work with existing and new partners in better measuring and achieving Sustainable Development Goals!






SPRI in virtual reality

During a half-day retreat in Brussels in October of 2017, the SPRI team immersed themselves in Virtual Reality. More than an entertaining and immersive team-building exercise, the experience inspired SPRI to explore opportunities for innovating on communication technologies to present complex research results. SPRI’s previous efforts in this lane are encapsulated by its publication of an interactive web-portal which allows visitors to customise their selection and presentation of various aspects of country-specific child poverty (SPRI N-MODA Portal). The analyses on the web-portal are available in various languages and allow visitors to download the tables and figures of child poverty analyses for use in their own reporting.

In the near future, SPRI will explore further possibilities to use Augmented Reality to make research results more easily accessible, more interactive, and more engaging to use. These steps for enhancing and innovating on effective communication of otherwise less intuitive analysis results are in line with SPRI’s endeavors for “Engaging theory and Evidence with Policy Practice”.

Enhancing the teaching capacity of lecturers of the Royal University of Bhutan in Social Protection

From November 20 – December 1, 2017, core SPRI associates organized and facilitated a two-week “Training of the Trainers” course on social policy and social protection, together with Thammasat University, Bangkok and with UNICEF Bhutan. The two-week seminar program was organised in Bangkok with the support of the faculty of Social Policy and Social Administration – Social Policy and Development at Thammasat University, of the Faculty of Social Policy Certificate Programme at the Royal University of Bhutan, and of UNICEF Bhutan and UNICEF ROSA.


From left (top row): Dr. Prapaporn Tivayanond Mongkhonvanit (SPD/Thammasat University), Mr. Sonam Dendup (Sherubtse College),   Mr. Jamba Tobden (Sherubtse College), Mr. Leki Sangay (Sherubtse College), Mr. Peljor Galay (Sherubtse College), Mr. Ugyen Lhendup (Sherubtse College), Ms. Julia Karpati (SPRI/Tilburg University). From left (bottom row): Dr. Victor P. Karunan (SPRI/Thammasat University), Prof. Dr. Kovit Phong-ngam (Thammasat University), Prof. Dr. Chris de Neubourg (SPRI). Not pictured: Nesha Ramful (SPRI/Tilburg University). 

Participating members were lecturers and administrators from Sherubtse College of the Royal University of Bhutan. These lecturers and administrators organize a basic course in social policy and social protection for civil servants and Members of Parliament every year. They invited SPRI to facilitate lectures, discuss their teaching program and to discuss with them the newest insights and ideas in social protection.

The schedule of the seminar program spanned two weeks, and covered the following areas:

  • Main elements of social policy – equity and social inclusion, health, education, social protection, social services, and their interrelations
  • Poverty concepts  and measurement – monetary and multidimensional poverty, well-being, and happiness; measurement using various units of analysis
  • Policy processes including case studies from Thailand and other countries
  • Social protection concepts and instruments
  • Mapping the social protection system in Bhutan – identifying risks and vulnerabilities, social policy tools which address and correct these, along with gaps in delivery, services and programmes
  • Public finance for social policy
  • Principles of contributory social protection interventions
  • Social budgeting including simulation exercises
  • Civil Society Organisation and social policy
  • Policy administration and implementation
  • Evaluations including practical exercises for further delivery of teaching to course participants in Bhutan



In addition to seminar lectures and in-depth discussions, participants were also presented specific cases of the policy process in Thailand, as well as social protection policies and programs in Thailand, including field visits with senior officials of the National Economic and Social Development Board, Royal Government of Thailand, and with representatives and beneficiaries of Thailand’s Child Support Grant (CSG) Programme (Child Support Grant Operational Centre/DCY-MSDHS).

The ambassador of the Kingdom of Bhutan, H.E. Mr. Tshewang C. Dorji, joined us at the diploma ceremony at the end of two weeks course, delivering his perspective on the future of social policy and social protection in Bhutan, and to present the certificates of completion to the course participants. Pictured above and below are images from the certificate ceremony.

SPRI was honoured to have been a part of this multilateral effort, and is looking forward to continue our collaboration with the colleagues of Bhutan in partnership with Thammasat University in Bangkok.  Beyond the scope of the program itself, members of SPRI were engaged in mutual learning. Course participants from the Royal University of Bhutan discussed at great length the salient social policy issues in Bhutan, and the tools that are currently at their disposal for building effective social protection systems in the context of Bhutan’s specific vulnerabilities. Members of SPRI came away from the course with lessons from Bhutan on, among others, effective, responsible and sustainable multi-level governance as a vital tool for effective design and delivery of social services. We endeavour to continue our learning from our colleagues.

In the following days we will update our website with further lessons from and reflections on the two weeks spent in and outside of the classroom with our Bhutanese and Thai colleagues.

Working with the National Institute of Statistics in Angola

During missions in October and December, SPRI staff worked with specialists of the Angolan National Institute of Statistics (NIS) to estimate multidimensional Child Poverty in all its aspects using MODA (Multidimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis). During the first mission we discussed the multidimensional poverty concepts and decided on the indicators and thresholds to be used in the child poverty analysis in Angola. During the second mission, SPRI gave hands-on instructions on estimating multidimensional child poverty to the NIS-experts of Luanda. UNICEF, NIS and SPRI will continue their collaboration to publish reports on the deprivation of children in Angola in all its aspects. The research results should enable the government and the international community to get a better understanding of the characteristics of all aspect of child poverty in order to equip them better to fight child poverty and increase investment in children from early childhood to adolescence.


Pictured: The national statistical office of Angola.

New SPRI Affiliated Publication: Violence Against Children in the Asia Pacific Region

New SPRI affiliated publication in Violence Against Children by Victor Karunan on children in the Asia Pacific Region!

Violence Against Children adopts in its title the exhortation of Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen, “Making Human Rights Real,” which also represents the leitmotif of the book. It examines the prevalence of violence against children in Africa, the Asia Pacific Region, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and in the United States, and explores major ways of its prevention. Making human rights real engenders the challenge of helping all children to be free from violence and to lead a life replete with genuine nurture and the elimination of all violence. Only in this manner will the goal of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development —target 16.2—be achieved and the child as a rights-bearing individual realized in her/his fullness.

The specially commissioned chapters that make up the volume have been written by renowned scholars, researchers and advocates. They coalesce to provide an overview of the challenges facing children exposed to violence worldwide, and they advance discussions of the measures which are available and necessary for the prevention of violence against children. The book is intended for policy-makers, researchers and students of the social sciences and human rights who are interested in ending all the widespread maltreatment of children in our societies and our time.