A Robustness Check to Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) Methodology: The case of Nigeria
Teju Fagbeja and Victor Cebotari
This study is the first to employ a robustness check to the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) methodology. Using Nigerian MODA as the baseline study, we introduced three sets of parametric changes to the analysis: a change in poverty cut-offs (k); adjustments of indicators in dimensions, and inclusion of new dimensions as per the relevance for the national context. The rank correlation coefficient method is adopted to test for the robustness of MODA using Kendall Tau rank and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. The analysis is conducted for children aged 0-17 and for children of different age groups (0-4, 5-11, and 12-17), and across four profiling variables: regions, wealth index, education level of household head, and education level of mother. Findings show that rankings of dimensions across the four profile variables are overall stable when parametric changes apply. The adjustment of indicators in dimensions resulted in a slight increase in the deprivation headcount for housing for all age groups, and for water for children 12-17 years old. Minor decreases in headcounts were observed for sanitation, water, housing, health, and nutrition for children 0-4 years old; for information, sanitation, water, and education for children 5-11 years old; and for sanitation and education for children 12-17 years old. The multidimensional deprivation rate increased compared to that of the baseline Nigeria MODA (53.9%) when the poverty cut-off (k) was changed from three to two dimensions (78.7%), when indicators were adjusted in dimensions (58.2%), and when new dimensions of child labour, physical development, and HIV/AIDS were added to reflect specifics in the national context (65.8%). These results vary across regions, with the northern part of the country showing higher deprivation rates. This study confirms the robustness of MODA methodology to parametric changes, and highlights the importance of contextualising the evidence in the national realm.
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