Understanding child poverty and deprivation is key to develop policies that ensure children’s proper development and wellbeing. Analyses often focus on monetary wellbeing, utilizing income or expenditure measures to assess the poverty status of members of a given household. While financial constraints are one of the most important determinants of child deprivation, not all monetary poor children are deprived nor are all deprived children monetary poor. Access to income at the household level may not directly translate into improvements in its members’ wellbeing, especially children, not only because they are not the decision-makers in households (they are not sovereign consumers), but also because their needs are specific and they are not necessarily fulfilled by higher household incomes.
In order to complement traditional income-based measures of poverty with multidimensional deprivation analysis and to generate quality evidence on child poverty and disparities, UNICEF developed the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA). MODA adopts a holistic definition of child wellbeing, concentrating on the access of children to various goods and services which are crucial for their survival and development. It recognizes that a child’s experience of deprivations is multi-faceted and interrelated, and that such multiple and overlapping deprivations are more likely to occur, and with greater adverse effects, in socio-economically disadvantaged groups.
Our joint project with UNICEF DRC saw the application of the N-MODA methodology to the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2013-2014 dataset. for the analysis of single and multiple deprivations suffered by the children of the country. Under this project, single and multiple deprivations where studied for children from four distinct age groups (0-23 months, 24-59 months, 5-14 years, 15-17 years). The analysis results were organised in a technical report, an executive summary of the technical report, and a policy brief as well as displayed on our interactive web-portal.
The results of the analysis can be viewed in French and English on the N-MODA Web Portal here.