In the context of measuring the targets 1.1 and 1.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals 1, SPRI Global is conducting a monetary and a multidimensional poverty analysis for children in Cambodia. The indicators used as proxies for capturing the level of poverty amongst children are contextualized for Cambodia. The study is based on two national household databases. The multidimensional child poverty analysis utilizes the Cambodia Demographic and Household Survey 2014 (CDHS), while the monetary poverty analysis utilizes the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey 2014. The study is led by the Cambodia Ministry of Planning in partnership with UNICEF Cambodia. Local partners including statisticians from the Cambodian National Institute of Statistics, and several ministries will be trained to use the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation (MODA) methodology and monetary poverty analysis using Stata.
Understanding child poverty and deprivation is key to develop policies that ensure children’s proper development and wellbeing. Analyses often focus solely on monetary well-being, utilizing income or expenditure measures to assess the poverty status of members of a given household. While financial constraints are one of the most important determinants of child deprivation, not all monetary poor children are deprived nor are all deprived children monetary poor. Access to income at the household level may not directly translate into improvements in its members’ wellbeing, especially children, not only because they are not the decision-makers in households (they are not sovereign consumers), but also because their needs are specific and they are not necessarily fulfilled by higher household incomes.
In order to complement traditional income-based measures of poverty with multidimensional deprivation analysis and to generate quality evidence on child poverty and disparities, UNICEF developed MODA. MODA adopts a holistic definition of child wellbeing, concentrating on the access of children to various goods and services that are crucial for their survival and development. It recognizes that a child’s experience of deprivations is multi-faceted and interrelated, and that such multiple and overlapping deprivations are more likely to occur, and with greater adverse effects, in socio-economically disadvantaged groups.